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среда, 15 июня 2022 г.

M60A3 PI TANK PROGRAM

 



FIGURE 1 - M60 TANK DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

GENTLEMEN:

I AM COLONEL ROBERT E. BUTLER, PROJECT MANAGER, M60 TANK DEVELOPMENT. THE PROGRAM INCLUDES THE M48A5, M60A1/A2/A3, M728 CEV, AND AVLB.

I AM RESPONSIBLE FOR ENGINEERING, FIELD SUPPORT AND PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS FOR ALL THESE SYSTEMS, SO IF YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEMS, I AM THE ONE TO CONTACT. TODAY, I WILL DISCUSS THE M60A3TANK PROGRAM TO INCLUDE PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE PRODUCT IMPROVEMENTS.

 


FIGURE 2 - M60 SERIES TANKS

THE BASIC PREMISE FOR PRODUCT IMPROVING THE M60A1 AND INTRODUCING THE M60A3 IS THAT THEY WILL REMAIN OUR FRONT LINE TANKS UNTIL SUCH TIME THAT A SIZEABLE NUMBER OF XM1 TANKS ARE INTRODUCED INTO THE INVENTORY. THEREFORE, THERE IS A DEFINITE NEED TO IMPROVE THE COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS OF THE M60 SERIES TANKS IN ORDER TO KEEP PACE WITH THE TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES OF OTHER NATIONS AND STATE OF THE ART IMPROVEMENTS.

 

FIGURE 3 - M60A1 TANK EVOLUTION

IN 1969, A SENIOR OFFICER MATERIEL REVIEW BOARD RECOMMENDED THAT THE M60A1 TANK BE PRODUCT IMPROVED. FIGURE 3 SHOWS THE PROGRESS WE HAVE MADE SO FAR AND THE PLANS FOR THE IMMEDIATE FUTURE. IN 1971, THE TOP LOADING AIR CLEANER WAS INTRODUCED, FOLLOWED BY INTRODUCTION OF THE AOS IN 1972, THE T142 TRACK IN 1974, THE RISE ENGINE AND IMPROVED ELECTRI CAL SYSTEM IN 1975. THE THREE PASSIVE IMAGE INTENSIFICATION NIGHT DEVICES AND THE DEEP WATER FORDING KIT WERE INCORPORATED INTO ARMY PRODUCTION TANKS BEGINNING IN MAY 1977.

IN 1978 THE AN/VVG-2 LASER RANGE FINDER, XM21 SOLID STATE COMPUTER, M239 SMOKE GRENADE LAUNCHER, AND THE M240 MACHINEGUN WILL BE INCORPORATED AND THE DESIGNATION WILL BE CHANGED TO M60A3.

THE M60A3 PRODUCTION MODELS IN EARLY 1979 WILL INCLUDE A TANK THERMAL SIGHT IN LIEU OF THE GUNNER'S M35E1 PASSIVE PERISCOPE.

 



FIGURE 4 - M60A1 RISE PASSIVE TANK

THE M60A1 RISE (PASSIVE) TANK, SHOWN HERE, EVOLVED FROM THE M60A1 AS DEPICTED IN THE PREVIOUS FIGURE.

THIS CONFIGURATION REPRESENTS THE TANK CURRENTLY BEING PRODUCED AT THE ARMY TANK PLANT.

IT IS PLANNED THAT ALL M60A1 TANKS CURRENTLY FIELDED WILL EVENTUALLY BE CON­VERTED TO THIS BASELINE CONFIGURATION DURING DEPOT OVERHAUL.

  

FIGURE 5 - M60A3 TANK

THE M60A3 IS AN M60A1 RISE (PASSIVE) TANK EQUIPPED WITH A NEW FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM CONSISTING OF THE RUBY LASER RANGEFINDER AND THE XM21 SOLID STATE ELECTRONIC COMPUTER. A THERMAL SHROUD IS ALSO INCLUDED TO REDUCE MAIN GUN TUBE BEND DUE TO SOLAR RADIATION. THE LASER AND COMPUTER AFFORD A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN FIRST ROUND HIT CAPABILITY AT ALL RANGES. TWO OTHER IMPROVEMENTS HAVE BEEN ADDED TO THE M60A3 TANK. THE BELGIAN M240 MACHINEGUN IS AT LEAST FIVE TIMES AS RELIABLE AS THE CURRENT M219 MACHINEGUN, AND THE UK M239 SMOKE GRENADE LAUNCHER REDUCES VULNERABILITY BY GIVING THE TANK A BUILT-IN DEFENSIVE CAPABILITY ESPECIALLY AGAINST ANTI-TANK MISSILES. WE WILL ALSO INSTALL THE M240 MACHINEGUN AND M239 SMOKE GRENADE LAUNCHER ON TANKS ALREADY IN THE FIELD. THIS PROGRAM WILL BEGIN IN OCTOBER 1977 IN GERMANY WITH THE SMOKE GRENADE LAUNCHERS, FOLLOWED BY THE M240 MACHINEGUN EARLY NEXT YEAR.

THE FIRST M60A3 TANK WILL BE PRODUCED IN FEBRUARY 1978. CURRENT ARMY PLANS ARE TO PRODUCE AT LEAST 1,800 OF THE M60A3 TANKS THROUGH MARCH 1982. A DEVELOPMENT TEST (DT) III/FORCE DEVELOPMENT TESTING AND EXPERIMENTATION (FDTE) OF THE M60A3 WILL BE CONDUCTED DURING 1978 AT APG, FORT KNOX, AND FORT HOOD.

FIELDING OF THE FIRST M60A3 TANK CURRENTLY PLANNED FOR EUROPE WILL TAKE PLACE IN EARLY 1979 FOLLOWING THE COMPLETION OF THE DT  III/FDTE.

 




FIGURE 6 - FIRE CONTROL PRODUCT IMPROVEMENTS

I WOULD LIKE TO DISCUSS IN MORE DETAIL THE MAJOR FIRE CONTROL IMPROVEMENTS IN THEM60A3. TWO OF THEM ARE SHOWN IN FIGURE 6. PREVIOUSLY, OUR ABILITY TO FIRE ON THE MOVE, HIT A TARGET BEYOND 2,000 METERS, AND RANGE AT NIGHT WERE EXTREMELY LIMITED. A VAST IMPROVEMENT IN ALL THESE AREAS HAS BEEN REALIZED WITH THE M60A3 FIRE CONTROL. NOT ONLY DO WE GAIN A 30% DAYTIME EFFECTIVENESS INCREASE IN HIT PROBABILITY THRU THE INCORPORATION OF THE LASER AND COMPUTER, BUT A SYNERGISTIC EFFECT IS PROVIDED BY COMBINING THE LASER WITH THE PASSIVE NIGHT SIGHTS REVOLU­TIONIZING OUR ABILITY TO FIGHT AT NIGHT.

LASTLY, THE ABILITY OF THE GUNNER TO RANGE AND FIRE THE MAIN GUN INDEPENDENTLY, IS A MAJOR ADVANTAGE OF THE M60A3 TANK.

 

 

FIGURE 7- TANK THERMAL SIGHT

THE M60A3 TANK FIRE CONTROL WILL BE FURTHER ENHANCED BY THE REPLACEMENT OF THE GUNNER'S M35E1 PASSIVE NIGHT PERISCOPE WITH THE TANK THERMAL SIGHT (TTS), A REVOLUTIONARY IMPROVEMENT PERMITTING NEAR DAYLIGHT TACTICAL OPERATIONS UNDER CONDITIONS OF LIMITED VISIBILITY. THERMAL IMAGING IS INDEPENDENT OF AMBIENT LIGHT, BECAUSE IT SENSES HEAT EMITTED BY A TARGET AND FORMS AN IMAGE ON A SCREEN. THE TTS HAS AN ELBOW WHICH ALLOWS THE COMMANDER TO VIEW THE SAME SCENE AS THE GUNNER, THUS ENABLING THE COMMANDER TO FIRE THE MAIN GUN INDEPENDENTLY DURING PERIODS OF LIMITED VISIBILITY.

TESTING HAS SHOWN THAT THE TTS IS ABLE TO DETECT TARGETS AT MUCH GREATER RANGES THAN THE M35E1 PASSIVE IMAGE INTENSIFICATION SIGHT. IT CAN SENSE TARGETS THROUGH SMOKE, HAZE, FOG AND RAIN WHICH THE PASSIVE NIGHT SIGHT CANNOT. IT ENABLES THE TANK CREW TO USE THE EXTENDED RANGE CAPABILITY OF THE M60A3 Fl RE CONTROLS DURING THESE PERIODS OF LIMITED VISIBILITY. THE TTS IS MORE THAN TWICE AS EFFECTIVE AS THE M35E1 PASSIVE SIGHT.

DUE TO THE SUCCESS DURING TESTING AND POTENTIAL OPERATIONAL IMPACT, THE ARMY HAS DECIDED TO ACCELERATE THE TTS PROGRAM. THE TECHNI CAL RISK IN THIS ACCEL­ERATED PROGRAM IS DEEMED TO BE LOW SINCE PROVEN THERMAL IMAGING MODULES COMMON TO OTHER DOD SYSTEMS HAD NO FAILURES DURING DT/OT I TESTING.

THE ACCELERATED PROGRAM WILL PERMIT THE ARMY TO COMBINE A PORTION OF THE M60A3 AND TTS TESTING AND INTRODUCE THE THERMAL SIGHT INTO TANK PRODUCTION IN EARLY 1979. THE ABILITY TO COMBINE THESE TWO TESTS IS KEYED TOA WARDING A LOW RATE INITIAL PRODUCTION CONTRACT BY OCTOBER 1977.

CURRENTLY, WE ARE AWAITING CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL OF A DOD REQUESTED REPROGRAMMING ACTION TO AWARD AN LRIP CONTRACT OPTION TO TEXAS INSTRUMENTS FOR THE FIRST 300 UNITS.



 

FIGURE 8 - M60A3 TTS IMPROVEMENTS

ALTHOUGH THE M60A3 TTS TANK HAS NOT BEEN FIELDED YET, SEVERAL OTHER AREAS OF IMPROVEMENTS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED FOR DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURE APPLICATION TO ENHANCE THE TANK'S EFFECTIVENESS.

THREE OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN  ESTABLISHED IN THE QUEST FOR IMPROVING THE TANK. THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE IS TO INCREASE THE TANK'S PERFORMANCE IN THE AREAS OF FIRE POWER, MOBILITY, AND RAM-D WHILE REDUCING THE TANK'S VULNERABILITY.

COST REDUCTION FOR EXPENSIVE FIRE CONTROL COMPONENTS WITHOUT SYSTEM DEGRA­DATION IS ANOTHER OBJECTIVE.

THE THIRD OBJECTIVE IS COMMONALITY AND/OR INTEROPERABILITY WITHTHEXM1 TANK TO ENHANCE SUPPORT EFFICIENCY FOR THE TOTAL TANK FLEET.

SHOWN HERE ARE SIXTEEN IMPROVEMENTS CONSIDERED APPLICABLE IN MEETING ONE OR MORE OF THOSE OBJECTIVES.

 

FIGURE 9 - CURRENT PROGRAM STATUS

ON THE LEFT OF FIGURE 9 ARE THOSE IMPROVEMENTS WHICH HAVE BEEN APPROVED AND FUNDED FOR DEVELOPMENT. AN ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM WILL BE INITIATED THIS FALL FOR THE MUZZLE POSITION SENSOR AND THE XM-1 PLANETARY FINAL DRIVE. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT WILL BE INITIATED FOR TANK APPLI CATION OF THE ITEMS INCLUDED UNDER ADAPTION HARDWARE.

ON THE RIGHT ARE OTHER PROGRAMS FOR WHICH PROGRAM APPROVAL WAS RECEIVED AT THE JULY 1977 TANK SPECIAL STUDY ASARC. CONGRESSIONAL FUNDING FOR A COMPETITIVE IMPROVED FIRE CONTROL PROGRAM TO COMMENCE IN FY 78 WAS APPROVED. THIS PROGRAM CONSISTS OF A MINI LASER AND MICRO PROCESSOR COMPUTER, TWO IMPROVEMENTS WHICH WILL REDUCE THE COST OF THE TANK Fl RE CONTROL.

I WILL NOW BRIEFLY DISCUSS THE MAJOR PRODUCT IMPROVEMENTS.


 

FIGURE 10 - MUZZLE POSITION SENSOR

ONE OF THE MAJOR ERRORS IN HITTING ACCURACY STEMS FROM GUN TUBE DISTORTION

CAUSED BY THERMAL ENERGY.

SHOWN HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A MUZZLE POSITION SENSOR WHICH IS DESIGNED TO

CORRECT FOR THIS DISTORTION. HIT PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS UPTO 207 HAVE

BEEN PROJECTED. BY CORRECTING FOR THE CHANGE IN THE GUN TUBE POSITION, THE ACCURACY OBTAINED DURING ZEROING WILL REMAIN EFFECTIVE FOR LONGER PERIODS

AND REDUCE THE COST ASSOCIATED WITH AMMUNITION REQUIRED TO REZERO.

THE MRS CAN BE MANUALLY OPERATED OR AUTOMATED INTO THE SOLI D STATE COMPUTER.

THE MANUAL VERSION COULD BE APPLIED TO M48A5, M60 AND M60A1 TANKS. THE AUTO­MATIC FORM PROVIDES CORRECTIONS WITHOUT ANY GUNNER INVOLVEMENT AND IS BEING CONSIDERED FOR ALL M60A3 TANKS.

THE M60A3TANK HAS A THERMAL SHROUD ON THE GUN TUBE TO AID IN HEAT DISSIPATION.

IT IS ANTICIPATED THAT THE CORRECTIONS PROVIDED BY THE MRS WILL FURTHER ENHANCE THE IMPROVED PERFORMANCE PROVIDED BY THE SHROUD.

PROPOSALS FROM NUMEROUS CONTRACTORS ARE EXPECTED IN AUGUST 1977. TWO COMPETITIVE PROTOTYPE DESIGNS WILL BE SELECTED FOR THE FIRST PROGRAM PHASE OF 12 MONTHS. THE WINNER WILL BE AWARDED A CONTRACT FOR A SECOND PHASE FULL SCALE ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. TANK APPLICATION OF THE FIRST PRODUCTION UNITS IS PLANNED FOR JANUARY 1981.

 

FIGURE 11 -XM-1 PLANETARY FINAL DRIVE

THE FINAL DRIVE USED ON THE M60A1 TANK WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT FOR THE 50 TON M48 TANK. THE WEIGHT OF THE TANK TODAY IS IN EXCESS OF 56 TONS. IN THESE HEAVIER TANKS, THE FINAL DRIVES HAVE A HIGHER FAILURE RATE WITH A MEAN MILES BETWEEN FAILURE OF ONLY 2,900.

A NEW PLANETARY FINAL DRIVE HAS BEEN DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR USE WITH THE X-1100 TRANSMISSION OF THE XM1 TANK. WITH HULL MODIFICATIONS AND AN AUXILIARY GEARBOX, IT COULD BE RETROFITTED INTO ALL M60A1 TANKS WITH THE CD 850 TRANS­MISSION. THE NEW FINAL DRIVES WILL WEIGH ABOUT THE SAME AS THE CURRENT ONES, ALTHOUGH THE ADDED AUXILIARY GEARBOXES WILL INCREASE THE TOTAL TANK WEIGHT BY 440 POUNDS. THE RELIABILITY OF THE FINAL DRIVE SHOULD MORE THAN TRIPLE WITH THE INCORPORATION OF THIS IMPROVEMENT.

THE IMPROVED FINAL DRIVE WILL ALSO PROVIDE POTENTIAL FOR FUTURE POWER AND PERFORMANCE GROWTH. AN ENGINEERING CONTRACT FOR ADVANCE DEVELOPMENT WILL BEGIN THIS FALL.

 


FIGURE 12 - COMBAT VEHICLE HEADING REFERENCE

ONE OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENTS BEING ADOPTED FOR THE TANK IS THE COMPASS.

WHEN TRAVELLING CROSS COUNTRY IN THE ABSENCE OF WELL-DEFINED LANDMARKS, SUCH AS JUNGLE OR DESERT ENVIRONMENTS, NIGHT OPERATIONS, OR DURING OTHER PERIODS OF REDUCED VISIBILITY, THE ABILITY TO NAVIGATE A TANK IS LIMITED.

PRESENTLY, THE HIGH STEEL CONTENT OF THE TANK MAKES USE OF THE HANDHELD LENSATIC COMPASS IMPRACTICAL WITHOUT DISMOUNTING.

TESTS AT FT KNOX HAVE INDICATED THE USE OF A LOW COST MAGNETIC SENSOR WILL PROVIDE ±3° OF ACCURACY WHEN GUN TUBE POSITION IS CONSTRAINED TO A COMBAT READY COMPEN­SATION POINT. BY ADDING AN AUXILIARY SENSOR SUCH AS A DIRECTIONAL GYRO, 1° OF ACCURACY CAN BE MAINTAINED WITHOUT GUN TUBE RESTRICTION. SINCE THIS IS A COSTLY SYSTEM, THE 1° OF ACCURACY IS BEING CONSIDERED FOR COMMAND TANKS ONLY.

BOTH CONCEPTS ENVISION A HEADING INDICATION READ OUT FOR THE DRIVER AND A REMOTE DISPLAY FOR THE COMMANDER.

THE TRAINING AND DOCTRINE COMMAND HAS PLACED AN URGENT REQUIREMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HEADING REFERENCE UNIT FOR THE TANK.

THE PROJECT MANAGER FOR NAVIGATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS IS IN THE PROCESS OF INITIATING A COMPETITIVE PROTOTYPE PROGRAM FOR A NON-DEVELOPMENTAL SYSTEM. MY OFFICE IS DEVELOPING THE ADAPTATION HARDWARE. TWO SYSTEMS HAVE ALREADY DEMONSTRATED + 3° OF ACCURACY AND SEVERAL FIRMS HAVE SHOWN INTEREST. THE SELECTED SYSTEM SHOULD BE FIELDED IN 1980.

I WOULD NOW LIKE TO REVIEW THE POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS SHOWN ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF FIGURE 9.

 

FIGURE 13 - IMPROVED FIRE CONTROL

MINIATURIZATION IN STATE-OF-THE-ART TANK Fl RE CONTROL SYSTEMS HAS BEEN REALIZED PRIMARILY BY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGY. THE PRODUCT ISA SYSTEM USING XM1 TECHNOLOGY WHICH MAINTAINS M60A3 HIT PERFOR­MANCE, SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCES THE COST OF THE FIRE CONTROL, AND ENHANCES TANK RELIABILITY.

THERE ARE TWO MINI LASERS AVAILABLE TODAY THAT COULD BE INTEGRATED INTO THE M60A3 THERMAL SIGHT. EITHER THE AN/GVS-5 HANDHELD MINI LASER RANGE FINDER OR THE XM1 HUGHES MINI LASER COULD BE USED BY REMOVING THE DAYLIGHT MODULE FROM THE SIGHT AND SUBSTITUTING A COMBINATION DAYLIGHT/LA SER MODULE.

AT THE SAME TIME, COMPUTERS USING MICRO PROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY HAVE ALSO BEEN DEVELOPED WHICH WILL REDUCE THE SIZE AND COST WHILE MAINTAINING THE PERFOR­MANCE ACHIEVED WITH THE M60A3 COMPUTER SYSTEM. THERE ARE SEVERAL FEASIBLE APPROACHES TO INCORPORATING MICRO PROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY INTO THE M60A3TANK.

ONE IS TO USE THE XM1 DIGITAL COMPUTER, ANOTHER IS TO MODIFY THE EXISTING XM21 SOLID STATE COMPUTER, WHILE A THIRD APPROACH IS A DESIGN WHICH INCORPORATES ALL THE COMPUTER FUNCTIONS INTO THE SAME BLACK BOX AS THE MINI LASER FOR INTE­GRATION DIRECTLY INTO THE THERMAL SIGHT.

SINCE THERE ARE MANY FEASIBLE OPTIONS, A COMPETITIVE PROGRAM IS CURRENTLY BEING DESIGNED FOR A START LATER THIS YEAR. THE DEVELOPMENT EFFORT WILL TAKE ABOUT THREE YEARS, AND THE APPROVED SYSTEM WILL BE USED TO RETROFIT M60A1 TANKS IN LIEU OF M60A3 FIRE CONTROL.

TO OFFSET THE NEED FOR A COMMANDER'S MAIN GUN DAYLIGHT SIGHT, WHICH WOULD BE A PART OF THE DELETED M60A3 LASER, THE M17A1 RANGE FINDER OF THE M60A1 COULD BE RETAINED.

ONE OPTION CONSIDERED, BUT NOT RECOMMENDED, WAS USE OF THE SAME FIRE CONTROL AS THE XM1 TANK. THE PROBLEMS WITH THIS APPROACH ARE PHYSICAL INTERFERENCE

OF THE SIGHT, EXTENSIVE MODIFICATION OF THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM TO FULLY UTILIZE THE XM1 STABILIZED SIGHT, AND INCREASED PROGRAM COST IN COMPARISON WITH A COMPETITIVE PROGRAM.

 

 


FIGURE 14 - AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHER

THE LAST MAJOR IMPROVEMENT I WOULD LIKE TO DISCUSS TODAY IS ANXM1 TYPE AUTO­MATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHER SYSTEM. THIS SYSTEM EMPLOYS THE USE OF HALON TO PRO­VIDE INSTANTANEOUS SUPPRESSION OF Fl RES IN THE CREW AND ENGINE COMPARTMENT.

IT CAN BE ACTIVATED MANUALLY OR WILL REACT AUTOMATICALLY, WITH SIGNIFICANTLY MORE EFFECTIVE SUPPRESSION THAN THE CURRENT MANUAL CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEM.

THE ARMY IS CURRENTLY PLANNING TO CONVERT ALL CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEMS TO HALON. THE M60A2 AND M48A5 PORTABLE EXTINGUISHERS ARE CURRENTLY USING

HALON. CURRENT FIXED AND PORTABLE SYSTEMS FOR THE M60A1 WILL BE CONVERTED FROM CARBON DIOXIDE TO HALON AS SOON AS A SYSTEM CHECK TEST CONFIRMS SAFE TOXICITY LEVELS. THE PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM TO INCORPORATE THE XM1 TYPE AUTOMATIC SYSTEM COULD COMMENCE IN 1978.

 


FIGURE 15 - AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

A JOINT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM HAS BEEN INITIATED BY M60/XM-1 TO DESIGN AND DEVELOP AN AUXILIARY POWER UNIT TO PROVIDE A FOUR TO EIGHT KW GENERATOR CAPABLE OF MEETING THE TANK OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS DURING SILENT WATCH. THE SYSTEM WILL ALSO BE DESIGNED WITH A HEAT EXCHANGER TO PROVIDE BATTERY AND ENGINE WARMING FOR COLD WEATHER STARTING. THIS SYSTEM WILL BE EXAMINED FOR THE FEASIBILITY OF PROVIDING ENOUGH HEAT TO REPLACE THE PERSONNEL HEATER.

THE SYSTEM DESIGN WILL BE SMALL AND LIGHTWEIGHT SO THAT INSTALLATION WITHIN THE TANK ARMOR ENVELOPE IS ACCOMMODATED.

PROTOTYPE HARDWARE WILL UNDERGO COMPETITIVE TESTING IN THE 1979 TIMEFRAME,

 


FIGURE 16 - M140 GUN MOUNT OPTIONS

THE EXISTING M140 GUN MOUNT WILL BE MODIFIED TO IMPROVE ITS DURABILITY AND RELIABILITY. TWO GUN MOUNT DESIGNS ARE BEING COMPARED TO SELECT THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE APPROACH AT REACHING THIS GOAL.

A COMMON XM-1 MOUNT IS BEING CONSIDERED WITH A STRONGER RECOIL SPRING. BECAUSE OF DIFFERENCES IN OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SIZE, A STUDY ON REDESIGN IS BEING CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE MAGNITUDE OF CHANGES IN THE XM-1 COMPONENTS AND THE M140 CRADLE.

THIS OPTION IS BEING COMPARED TO A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN WHICH REPLACES THE RECOIL SPRING WITH A COMPRESSIBLE FLUID. THIS DESIGN WILL HAVE 3 BASIC INTERNAL COMPONENTS COMPARED TO THE 9 PARTS THAT NOW EXIST. A LATCHING MECHANISM WILL BE REQUIRED TO PREVENT THE GUN FROM SLIPPING OUT OF BATTERY.

ONE DESIGN WILL BE PURSUED FOR M60A3 TANK APPLICATION AND COULD BE AVAILABLE BY 1982.

 

FIGURE 17 - MINOR IMPROVEMENTS IN PRODUCTION

IN ADDITION TO THE MAJOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS I HAVE DISCUSSED, NUMEROUS DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS HAVE BEEN MADE WITHOUT THE VISIBILITY GI VEN TO MAJOR COMPONENTS. HOWEVER, THE BENEFITS DERIVED FROM THESE CHANGES ARE CONSIDERED NOTEWORTHY AND I WILL MENTION A FEW OF THE MORE SIGNIFICANT ONES.

THIS LIST REPRESENTS CHANGES ALREADY IN THE CURRENT PRODUCTION TANK. VULNERABILITY OF THE TOP LOADING AIR CLEANER (TLAC) TO SMALL ARMS AND ARTIL­LERY FIRE WAS REDUCED BY CHANGING FROM ALUMINUM TO STEEL. USE OF STEEL SHOULD ALSO OVERCOME THE PROBLEM WE HAVE HAD WITH BROKEN COVER DOOR HINGES. SEVERAL OTHER MAINTAINABILITY AND RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENTS WERE IN­CORPORATED INTO THE ARMORED TLAC. THESE INCLUDE CAPTIVE BOLTS TO PREVENT LOSS OF BOLTS AND TO IMPROVE SEALING, A SERVICING DECAL FOR THE OPERATOR, REMOVAL OF SHARP EDGES ON THE DOOR LIP TO PREVENT FILTER DAMAGE, A MORE ACCESSIBLE BLOWER MOTOR OPENING, AND AN AIR RESTRICTION INDICATOR TO RE­MIND THE CREW TO CLEAN THE FILTER.

A KIT IS BEING ENGINEERED FOR THOSE MAINTAINABILITY AND RELIABILITY CHANGES WHICH CAN BE MADE FOR FIELDED ALUMINUM AIR CLEANERS. THE KIT WILL INCLUDE A PROTECTIVE GUARD TO KEEP THE COVER DOOR HINGES FROM BEING BROKEN.

THE STEEL SUPPORT ROLLERS ELIMINATE THE TROUBLESOME WEAR PLATE USED WITH THE ALUMINUM SUPPORT ROLLERS AND REDUCE THE PROCUREMENT AND MAINTENANCE COSTS. A MINOR WEIGHT PENALTY OF 40 POUNDS PER TANK IS OFFSET BY A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVE­MENT IN RELIABILITY.

INTRODUCTION OF THE SMALLER PASSIVE DRIVER'S VIEWER PERMITTED REDESIGN OF THE STOWAGE BOX LOCATED UNDER THE MAIN GUN. BY REDUCING THE SIZE OF THE BOX AND MOVING IT REARWARD, THERE IS LESS HULL AMMO RACK HANDLE AND MAIN GUN CYLINDER SERVO VALVE INTERFERENCE. THE REDESIGNED BOX ALSO FACILITATES ITS REMOVAL FROM THE TANK.

PRODUCTION M60A1 TANKS ARE BEING PAINTED WITH A CAMOUFLAGE BASE COAT. SINCE DIFFERENT AREAS REQUIRE VARYING PATTERNS, THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY DIRECTED THAT COMPLETION OF THE PAINTING WOULD BE DONE BY FIELD UNITS.

A DRIVER'S ESCAPE HATCH WITH AN IMPROVED SEAL AND A NEW PERSONNEL HEATER WITH AN IMPROVED IGNITOR HAVE BEEN INCORPORATED IN PRODUCTION TO REDUCE MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS AND IMPROVE CREW COMFORT. ADDITIONAL IMPROVEMENTS ARE BEING TESTED FOR BOTH OF THESE ITEMS. A POSITIVE LOCKING DEVICE TO PRE­VENT THE HATCH LOCKING HANDLE FROM VIBRATING OPEN HAS BEEN DESIGNED AND IS UNDERGOING TEST. WE HAVE ALSO IMPROVED THE STARTING CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE HEATER AND PLAN TO INCORPORATE THE IMPROVEMENT LATER THIS YEAR.

TO PROVIDE SUFFICIENT POWER TO MEET STABILIZED TURRET ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS, THE TURRET MOTOR HAS BEEN CHANGED FROM A 5 HP TO A 10 HP MOTOR. THE HEAVIER MOTOR IS BEING USED ON ALL NEW PRODUCTION TANKS.

 

FIGURE 18 - FUTURE MINOR IMPROVEMENTS APPROVED 

THIS FIGURE DEPICTS IMPROVEMENTS CURRENTLY APPROVED AND AVAILABLE FOR PRODUCTION OR FIELDED TANKS IN 1978 OR BEYOND.

BY PROVIDING MORE TIME ON TARGET WITH A MODIFICATION TO THE TRAVERSE MODULE OF THE ADD ON STABILIZATION SYSTEM, A 30M IMPROVEMENT IN HITTING PERFORMANCE HAS BEEN  DEMONSTRATED. ALL M60A3 TANKS AND M60A1 TANKS STARTING IN JANUARY 1978 WILL INCORPORATE THIS IMPROVEMENT.

A HYDRAULIC QUICK DISCONNECT BETWEEN THE TRANSMISSION AND MASTER BRAKE CYLIN­DER HAS BEEN DEVELOPED TO FACILITATE POWER PACK REMOVAL AND PREVENT BRAKE BLEEDING REQUIREMENTS BEFORE REPLACEMENT.

AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE OPERATION OF THE BRAKE SLAVE CYLINDER PROTECTS THE SURFACE FROM CORROSION WHEN THE BRAKE IS NOT DEPRESSED, A MAJOR PROBLEM WITH THE CURRENT SYSTEM. ANOTHER QUICK DISCONNECT SEPARATING THE PUSH-PULL CABLE FOR THE PARKING BRAKE WILL PREVENT DAMAGE DURING REMOVAL

AN ENLARGED SLAVE CYLINDER, IMPROVED COOLING, MORE BRAKE BANDS, AND A LARGER DIAMETER BRAKE APPLY SHAFT ARE ALL BEING EXAMINED TO IMPROVE THE BRAKES,

EACH OF THESE CHANGES WILL BE EVALUATED AND INCORPORATED INTO PRODUCTION AFTER BEING VALIDATED.

NEW SHORTENED HULL AMMO RACK HANDLES HAVE BEEN DESIGNED AND TESTED TO ELIMIN­ATE PROTRUSION AND CONTACT WITH TURRET COMPONENTS DURING TURRET ROTATION. THESE WILL BE INCORPORATED INTO PRODUCTION TANKS BEGINNING LATER THIS YEAR.

THE GUNNER'S PROTECTIVE GUARD PROVIDES A WIRE MESH SCREEN SHIELDING THE GUNNER'S LEGS FROM THE HOT TURRET HYDRAULIC OIL RESERVOIR. THE TURRET BASKET SCREEN AROUND THE SIDE OF THE TURRET BASKET PREVENTS EXPENDED SHELL CASINGS, HELMETS, AND OTHER EQUIPMENT FROM FALLING BETWEEN THE TURRET BASKET AND THE HULL. THE USER HAS ALSO REQUESTED AN ADDITIONAL EXTERNAL BRACKET FOR A FIVE GALLON CAN FOR WATER OR OIL STOWAGE. THE TWO GUARDS AND THE BRACKET WILL BE INCORPORATED IN PRODUC­TION TANKS EARLY NEXT YEAR.

BOTH TEST RESULTS AND FIELD REPORTS HAVE STRESSED CONCERN WITH THE NEED FOR AN EMERGENCY STABILIZATION SHUT OFF SWITCH CONVENIENTLY LOCATED FOR THE LOADER TO PREVENT INJURY DURING PERIODS OF FIRING ON THE MOVE. THIS ADDITIONAL SWITCH HAS BEEN LOCATED NEAR THE LOADER'S INTERCOM BOX AND WILL BE IN PRODUCTION TANKS BEGINNING IN 1978.

SINCE THE T142 TRACK WAS INTRODUCED, WE HAVE CONTINUED TO IMPROVE THE TRACK TO MAKE IT MORE ACCEPTABLE TO THE TANKER. THE TRACK PA D HAS BEEN REDESIGNED TO MAKE THE RUBBER COMPONENTS LAST LONGER AND TO KEEP THE BOLTS SECURING THE PAD TO THE TRACK FROM LOOSENING. PRODUCTION DELIVERIES OF THESE NEW PADS BEGAN IN JUNE 1977. IN ADDITION TO THE TRACK RUBBER PROBLEMS, A FULL STUDY HAS BEEN INITIATED ON METAL COMPONENTS WITH ARMY MATERIEL RESEARCH MECHANICS CENTER FROM WATERTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS AND CHRYSLER. INDUCTION HARDENED END CONNECTORS ARE NOW BEING INSTALLED AT VARIOUS TEST SITES FOR EVALUATION. CENTER GUIDES OF A NEW DESIGN WHICH SHOULD REDUCE MISGUIDING AND PROVIDE IMPROVED CLAMPING ARE BEING PROCURED FOR TEST THIS FALL, AND STRONGER TRACK PINS ARE UNDER LABORATORY TEST TO DETERMINE THE VALUE OF PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS.

AIR CLEANER BLOWER MOTORS ARE BEING COMPARED INA DURABILITY TEST TO DEVELOP A NEW SOURCE OF MOTORS QUALIFIED FOR IMPROVED DURABILITY. TO DATE, NO MOTOR HAS PASSED THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED 800 HOUR CRITERIA. THE PRESENTLY USED MOTOR FAILED AT 300 HOURS OF TESTING, WHILE ONE OF THE NEW SOURCES HAD A MOTOR LAST BEYOND 600 HOURS. ALL FAI LURES WERE DUE TO BEARINGS AND BRUSHES. AFTER BEEFING-UP THE BEARINGS AND BRUSHES, THREE MORE MOTORS HAVE BEEN RECEIVED. INSPECTED AND A SEC­OND ATTEMPT WAS SUCCESSFUL IN QUALIFYING A MOTOR AT THE 800 HOUR CRITERIA.

THE TURRET TRAVERSING GEARBOX NO-BAK CAN BE IMPROVED BY REDUCING THE LOADS ON THE NO-BAK THROUGH A GEARING CHANGE. THIS GEARING CHANGE WILL FIT INTO THE SAME BOX AND WILL ALLOW THE SAME TRAVERSE RATE AS THE PRESENT SYSTEM. THIS SYSTEM HAS BEEN TESTED, PROVEN SATISFACTORY, AND WILL BE INCLUDED IN THE M60A3 TANKS WHEN PRODUCED.

 

FIGURE 19 - POTENTIAL MINOR IMPROVEMENTS - CONTINUED

A CONTINUOUS LEAD SOLUTION SIMILAR TOTHEXM1 COMPUTER SYSTEM IS BEING EXAMINED FOR INCORPORATION INTO THE XM-21 SOLID STATE COMPUTER FOR THE M60A3 TANK WHI CH Wl LL REDUCE THE GUNNER INVOLVEMENT IN LEAD APPLICATION LOGIC AND PROVIDE AN IMPROVED CAPABILITY AGAINST VARIABLE SPEED TARGETS.

A RUBBER TIRE SPROCKET WAS TESTED WITH THE TOB SUSPENSION IN EARLY M60A3 TESTING. THE PROGRAM WAS HELD IN ABEYANCE DURING INTENSIVE STUDY ON OVERALL SUSPENSION PROBLEMS.

RECENTLY, THIS IMPROVEMENT WAS TESTED INDEPENDENTLY AND FOUND TO BE SATISFACTORY BY THE USER IN REDUCING END CONNECTOR WEAR IMPROVING SPROCKET LIFE, AND REDUCING THE VEHICLE AUDIO SIGNAL. DURABILITY TESTING WILL BE CONDUCTED NEXT YEAR PRIOR TO A PRODUCTION DECISION.

AN ADVANCED TOROIDAL INERTIALAIR CLEANER DESIGNED AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE RISE ENGINE WILL PRECLUDE AIR CLEANER VULNERABILITY. ELIMINATE THE BLOWER MOTORS TO ENHANCE SYSTEM RELIABILITY AND PERMIT SAFE GROUND HOP OPERATIONS FOR THE ENGINE.

THIS IS A MAINTENANCE FREE SYSTEM WITH NO FILTER ELEMENT TO CLEAN AND NO MOVING PARTS.

THE ADVANCE AIR CLEANER IS IN THE CONCEPTUAL STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT AND IS SEVERAL YEARS AWAY FROM PRODUCTION.

THE LAST IMPROVEMENT I WOULD LIKE TO DISCUSS IS AN EXTERNAL GUN TUBE COATING FOR THOSE EXPOSED AREAS UNDER THE BORE EVACUATOR TO PREVENT CORROSION. A DRAIN PLUG AND VENT FOR THE BORE EVACUATOR ARE ALSO CONTEMPLATED THAT WILL REDUCE THE FREQUENCY OF EVACUATOR REMOVAL AN IMPORTANT IMPROVEMENT ONCE THE MUZZLE POSITION SENSOR HAS BEEN INCORPORATED.

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